Baking Knowledge -34 "Secrets" of Baking that Must Be Said
Why do people become more and more like gods with the same recipe and steps, while you are still baking Xiaobai? If you don't open your mind, the Great God will go further and further, and you will always be white and tender. So why not get a few simple and practical skills and bury yourself deeper and deeper in the baking pit.
Baking those things
1. When did baking begin on Earth?
The ancient Greek period of 500 to 600 BC
2. What is the formula for the percentage of ingredients in bread making?
Total weight of ingredients/total weight of flour * 100%=ingredient%
3. What is the role of oil in baking?
It can shorten the length of the gluten, wrap the cake to lubricate the gluten, and prevent the gluten from sticking together.
4. What should be paid attention to when mixing raw materials?
① Before adding wet ingredients, stir the dry ingredients evenly.
② When dry and wet ingredients are mixed alternately, the first and last ingredients are always dry ingredients.
③ Once the dry ingredients are added, do not over mix. Stir at low speed until fully mixed.
④ When two ingredients need to be folded and mixed, the lighter density ingredient should be placed on top, and the two ingredients should be folded and mixed with very light force.
5. Why shouldn't bread be refrigerated?
From the moment bread is baked, aging begins, with loss of moisture and chemical changes in starch structure. This change occurs faster during refrigeration, and almost stops during freezing.
6. Is bread flour the same as high gluten flour?
Bread flour contains about 12% protein, while high gluten flour should be above 14%.
7. What is the role of sugar (sweetener) in baking?
① Increase sweetness and aroma
② Soften gluten structure and delicate tissue
③ Increase surface color
④ Maintain moisture and extend shelf life
⑤ When mixed with oil, it can be used as an emulsifier, and when mixed with eggs, it can be used as a foaming agent
⑥ It is the target of yeast's action
8. In bread making, an equal amount of milk is not equal to an equal amount of water.
Fresh milk contains 88% -91% moisture, while the remaining solid substances are protein, lactose, and minerals. Therefore, if milk is used instead of water in the formula, it is necessary to add a little more to prevent the dough from becoming too dry.
9. What grades can eggs be classified according to their weight (with shells)?
Huge 70g, oversized 64g, large 57g, medium 50g, small 43g, and extremely small 35g.
10. What happens if the amount of flour and sugar is not correct?
Too much flour can cause the cake surface to break.
Too much sugar in a cake can cause it to scorch, while too little can make the texture harder.
11. What are the two types of baking powder? What are the characteristics?
① Single effect baking powder: It produces gas immediately upon contact with water and is only used for products that are baked immediately after mixing.
② Double effect baking powder: At low temperatures, some gas is released, and the reaction is complete only after heating. After the batter is prepared, it can be left for a period of time.
12. Can gelatin powder and tablets be replaced with each other?
Yes, except for different processing methods, its effect is exactly the same, 1 teaspoon gelatin powder=2.8g
13. What is the cooling effect of bread after being baked?
After baking is completed, it should be immediately placed on a grid for cooling to release excess water, alcohol generated during fermentation, and residual carbon dioxide.
14. How does soft bread keep the skin soft and tender?
Brushing a layer of melted butter before cooling after being discharged from the furnace can effectively prevent the skin from hardening.
15. How should hard crust bread (French style) be stored?
It is best to store at room temperature for 6 hours before consumption. Unless frozen, it cannot be wrapped, as it will soften the surface of the bread and make it difficult to eat like leather!
16. How many fermentation methods are there for dough? What are the characteristics?
① Direct method: Short time, quick effect, and flavor organization is not as good as the last two.
② Refrigerated fermentation: The flavor is good, but it is difficult to control the time and temperature, which can easily lead to excessive fermentation.
③ Middle seed method: Middle seed only uses refrigerated fermentation, which has a large production time elasticity, saves yeast usage, and has much better flavor organization than direct method. It is resistant to storage and not prone to aging.
17. Why is salt and cream mixed until the end?
Because the addition of salt and cream together with dry yeast directly inhibits yeast growth, and the final addition of salt can shorten mixing time and reduce energy consumption.
18. What is the difference between high sugar yeast and low sugar yeast?
High sugar yeast and low sugar yeast are produced based on the adaptability of yeast to raw materials. High sugar yeast is used when the sugar content in the formula is above 10%; Low sugar yeast is used when the sugar content is below 10%, and its effect is more ideal.
19. Why does the surface of bread collapse after baking?
A. Excessive awakening. B. Insufficient baking. C. The dough has aged during operation. D. Without necessary exhaust during operation.
20. Why does the waist retract after toasting toast?
A. The gluten is too strong. B. Insufficient looseness of gluten during molding and excessive tightness during molding. C. Failure to demould in a timely manner after baking can lead to waist retraction.
21. Why are there large bubbles under the skin after baking bread?
When the temperature is too high during hair awakening, it causes gelatinization on the surface, making it easy for bubbles to form under the skin after baking.
22. What should be the amount of sugar used in bread making?
The amount of sugar can be in the range of 0-25%.
23. What is the phenomenon of insufficient awakening of bread?
After baking, the starting volume is insufficient. The organization is rough and has a burnt taste.
24. What is the reason for the thick skin of bread after baking?
Insufficient humidity during awakening, lack of suitable baking temperature and time, resulting in excessive evaporation of moisture.
25. What is the reason for the surface wrinkling of bread?
Insufficient looseness during bread formation; Excessive moisture during the final awakening stage; Excessive cooling temperature difference after being fired can cause wrinkles on the surface of the bread.
26. Can freshly baked bread be eaten?
The lactic acid and acetic acid in the bread tissue will not completely evaporate until about 2 hours after being baked, so it is recommended to cool the freshly baked bread for 2 hours. Because the newly baked bread is still under high temperature, the action of enzymes continues, and a lot of carbon dioxide is generated at this time. It is not until the central temperature of the bread drops to around 40 ℃ that the enzyme action stops and the carbon dioxide is fully discharged.
27. How can I tell if the cake has already been baked? When did baking begin on Earth?
① Look at the color and swelling situation
Generally speaking, when the cake is ripe, it will expand to a certain extent and then slightly fall back, at which point the cake has basically formed; Looking at the coloring, even coloring indicates that the cake may have matured.
② Punch the hole to see if there is any mucus
You can use a toothpick or bamboo swab to poke it into the cake and pull it out to see if there is any mucus. If the cake is ripe, it will not be stained with mucus, while if it is not ripe, it will be.
③ Tap to listen for echoes
Rapidly tapping the cake body with your hands, such as making a "rustling" sound, indicates that the cake is not yet fully cooked.
④ Tap to see elasticity
Gently press the surface of the cake with your fingers to see if the pressed part will bounce up quickly. If so, it indicates that the cake is ripe and elastic. If it bounces up slowly, it still needs to be baked for a while.
28. What should I do if the baked cake is not ripe?
You can directly put it back into the oven for baking, but at this time, pay attention to adjusting the oven temperature and controlling the time. Here, there are several situations:
① Just out of the furnace
If a freshly baked cake is found to be undercooked, it can be immediately returned to the oven for baking. As the temperature of the cake does not change much, it is no problem to continue baking at the original temperature.
② Discharging for a period of time
After being baked for a period of time, the surface temperature of the cake has decreased, but the temperature inside is still very high. If baked at the original temperature and time, it may affect the cake structure. So it is recommended to lower the temperature or cover it with tin foil for secondary baking.
③ Completely cool
It's quite tricky. After the cake has completely cooled down, it was discovered that it was not cooked inside. It is not suitable to put it back in the oven for baking. At this point, the oven needs to fully heat and bake the cake. The heating of the oven is from the outside to the inside, so the heating inside will be slower than the outside, and the heating of the skin will be more severe.
So I suggest baking in the microwave for a few minutes or steaming in a pot.
29. Why can't the dough rise when making bread?
① Determine if the yeast has expired
Prepare half a cup of 30 ℃ warm water, add 2g granulated sugar, stir until dissolved, then add 5g yeast powder, stir and dissolve, and keep still for half an hour. If yeast with good activity will produce foam, foam will gradually overflow the cup within 0.5 hour; If there is not much foam produced after standing still for 1 hour, it means that the yeast has become invalid and can no longer be used. Therefore, it is recommended to choose small package yeast when purchasing.
② Excessive mixing during dough mixing, excessive moisture content in the dough, temperature during fermentation, and amount of salt can all affect the fermentation speed and effect of the dough.
Why does the Qifeng cake shrink or collapse?
The beating of egg whites is the first factor that affects the success of Qi Feng. The beating of egg whites can be tested by inserting chopsticks into the beaten egg whites, inverting the egg beater, and ensuring that the chopsticks do not fall off to ensure proper beating of egg whites.
When stirring, avoid using circles to stir. Quickly flipping from bottom to top can effectively prevent protein defoaming.
The temperature control during baking can be adjusted according to the performance of your own oven, and the time and temperature can be adjusted.
After the cake is baked, it should be promptly inverted to prevent retraction.
31. When baking cookies, it looks like they are already baked, but the inside is not yet cooked. Why is this?
The performance of each oven is different, so there will be certain differences in temperature. Your own oven needs to be tested multiple times to determine the appropriate temperature. If the temperature of the heating pipes above and below the oven cannot be controlled separately, there are also some small methods to control the oven temperature. If a baking tray is placed below it to block some of the heat and prevent excessive heat, it can also be covered with tin foil to prevent excessive heat and premature coloring of the surface before the cookies are fully cooked.
32. How to check if the eggs are fresh?
Check if the eggs are fresh. Put the egg in a bowl of water. If it sinks, the egg is fresh.
33. Why is the flour used to make dough sieved?
Some professionals believe that sieving flour is crucial for making dough or batter before mixing with other ingredients. At the beginning of the screening, try to mix in as much air as possible to ensure a light and thin texture is obtained no matter when baking.
Meanwhile, if you want to add cocoa powder or other dry ingredients like sugar, it is recommended to sieve all the dry ingredients. This can make all the ingredients mix better and more evenly.
34. What is the best degree of dryness and wetness when making puffs?
Use a wooden spoon or chopsticks to pick up the batter from the puff dough. The batter is in an inverted triangular shape, with the tip about 4cm away from the bottom and able to maintain its shape without sagging. That's it~